Lucifer: Joost van den Vondel: greatest achievements, the trilogy comprising Lucifer (), Adam in ballingschap (; Adam in Exile, ), and Noah. Religion was a sensitive subject in seventeenth-century theatre. In , Joost van den Vondel sent shockwaves through Amsterdam by locating a play in. Lucifer has ratings and 12 reviews. An influential and controversial work by Joost van den Vondel (), the colossus of Dutch literature, rega.

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Religion was a sensitive subject in seventeenth-century theatre.

Lucifer (toneelstuk)

InJoost van den Vondel sent shockwaves through Amsterdam by locating a play in heaven. It was a daring venture, but Vondel strived for the highest level of playwriting. He wanted to write tragedies in Vonel that could measure up to the ancient Greek tragedies.

It was characteristic of these plays that the protagonists had to command a high position so that their downfall would be all the more tragic. But as so often in such plays, the story that played out in another world also had a message for mortals in our own world.


Now that man is created, a being that can multiply, he may in time become a threat to the inhabitants of heaven.

Joost van den Vondel

The angel Apollion, sent to spy on man, is deeply impressed by this new being, especially the female version. His report only increases the jealousy of a number of angels led by Belial and Beelzebub.

They talk to Lucifer, who, excited, cries out without thinking: Although he claims that the uprising is not against God, he commits the ultimate sin of pride.

Luifer loyal and the rebel angels have heated debates about the issue. The intervention of Gabriel and Michael fails to change their minds.

Joost van den Vondel and his drama, ‘Lucifer’ | davidronaldharries

The rebels see in Lucifer the only one who can save them. They vonfel behind him and treat him like a god. This makes him a tragic figure.

Even though he knows he is waging a losing battle, he will take on the army of loyal angels, led by Michael, with the courage born of despair. Rafael is forced to watch helplessly as Lucifer rushes towards his own downfall. The angel Uriel describes the battle as a real air fight in which the rebellious angels suffer a crushing defeat and fall down into hell as hideous monsters.


The joy of victory is rapidly tempered when Gabriel arrives to tell of how Lucifer has wrought revenge by tempting vobdel in paradise.

Lucifer is not just a rebel. At the same lucicer, he is a tragic hero who has allowed himself to be intoxicated by his followers. At the moment when he realises that his cause is hopeless, it is already too late to turn back.

Vondel has his characters speak in stately alexandrines, but between the ovndel, the angels sing lyric texts.

The play was banned after two performances. This was good business for the printers, who published no less than six editions of Lucifer in the same year it first appeared.