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IECknown as Distribution automation using distribution line carrier systemsis a standard for low-speed reliable power line communications by electricity meters isc, water meters and SCADA. It is actually a series of standards describing the researched physical environment of power lines, a well-adapted physical layer, a workable low-power media access layer, and a management interface.
Related standards use the physical layer e. The physical layer synchronizes a small packet of tones to the zero-crossing of the power line’s voltage.
The tones are chosen by utilities, not specified in the standard.
One tone is chosen for mark i. The standard permits each zero-crossing to convey 1, 2, 4 or 8 bits, with increased sensitivity to timing as the number of bits increases. In multiphase power lines, a separate signal might be sent on each phase to speed up the transmission. The standard’s low speed is caused by the limited number of bits per power line cycle. The high reliability comes from its reliable timing system i.
The most significant bits are sent first, unlike a conventional serial port. The data from zero crossings should be collected into 8-bit bytes. Each byte is collected into byte packets.
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The first four bytes of each packet are a preamble to measure the channel’s current condition. This is followed by 38 bytes of data, and 3 byte-times of silence. The physical layer is adaptive. The silence and the preamble allow the receiver’s signal processing to measure the channel’s noise ratios.
Depending on the signal to noise ratios, the bits can be recovered from the difference between the power of the mark and space tones, the power of the mark tones only, or the space tones only. The system should be able to iwc the receiving method on each byte packet. The bytes from the low-layer packets are reformed into bytes for uec higher layers.
The higher link-layer strongly resembles HDLCexcept 63134-6 a novel feature that allows selected stations to retransmit messages. For example, it lets a central controller read a unit’s signal to noise ratios, and set the bit that enables a station to retransmit weak stations.
ief S-FSK spread frequency-shift keying is a modulation scheme that combines some of the advantages of classical spread-spectrum modulation immunity against narrow-band interference with some of the advantages of classical frequency-shift keying FSK is low complexity. The frequencies are 611334-6 far enough apart that frequency-selective fading and narrow-band interference only blocks one of the frequencies, so the receiver can still recover all the data from the other frequency.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. List of International Electrotechnical Commission standards.
BS EN 61334-6:2001, IEC 61334-6:2000