Psychology From an Empirical Standpoint · Franz Brentano. Routledge () Brentano and Wundt: Empirical and Experimental Bradford. Franz Brentano (). Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. I. The Concept and Purpose of Psychology. Source: Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. This standpoint is clearly mirrored in his empirical approach to psychology. It is noteworthy.

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Husserl, Intentionality, and Cognitive ScienceCambridge: In respect to belief, we would inquire what we believe directly; according to what laws one belief produces another; and what are the laws in virtue of which one thing is taken, rightly or erroneously, as evidence for another thing. Consequently, if the opposition between these two conceptions of psychology really implied the acceptance or rejection of the question of immortality, this issue would become of paramount importance and would compel us to undertake metaphysical research concerning the existence of substance as the bearer of mental states.

It is also true that things which directly concern us claim our attention more readily than things foreign to us. If one of the divisives ends in the course of time, e. The first is the Law of Similarity: However, the results that Brentano produces from his method in Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint have been described as “deadly dull and nearly vacuous.

Rather than accepting the notion of an immanent content, Meinong argues standppint the intentional relation is always a relation between the mental act and an object. What undoubtedly causes surprise is the fact that Aristotle here asserts that even with respect to its exactitude psychology is superior to the other sciences.

Perhaps both are correct. Moreover, Kriegel suggests that for Brentano this self-representational aspect is a necessary condition for having a presentation Kriegel Psychology from an Empirical Standpointtransl. A series of new investigations is linked with this point.

Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint – Wikipedia

University of California Press, Likewise, with reference to movements that have mental causes, the physiologist must establish within his own field their ultimate and proximate effects. Mill himself believed it to be an established fact that both types of case exist in the domain of inner phenomena.

In contrast to that which really and truly exists, they are mere phenomena. Brentano was not very fond of his students’ attempts to resolve these difficulties, mainly because he rejected their underlying ontological assumptions. We are told there that the psychologist has the task, first of all, of investigating what fganz soul is, and then of investigating its properties, some of which appear to inhere in it alone and not in the body, and, as such, are spiritual.


Hence, even though the really essential analogy is missing, the similarity to old age in external appearance is undeniable. Husserl, Edmund,Logische Untersuchungen.

Psychology from An Empirical Standpoint

We have no experience of that which truly exists, in and of itself, and that which we do experience is not true. For the individual and even more for the masses, where the imponderable circumstances which impede and promote progress balance each other out, psychological laws sttandpoint afford a sure basis for action.

Once a certain level of its possible development has been reached, the practical consequences will not fail to materialise. Brentano was strongly influenced by Aristotle and the Scholastics as well as by the empiricist and positivist movements of the early nineteenth century. It helped to establish psychology as a scientific discipline, but did so in a psychplogy original and distinctive manner by arguing for a form of introspectionism.

I say this only in passing so as perhaps to make it easier to convince some of the enthusiastic followers of Aristotle who still exist even in our own times. Verlag von Veit und Psycholigy. For all brentao facts and laws which this branch of inquiry investigates when it is conceived of as the science of bodies will continue to be investigated by it when it is viewed only as the science of physical phenomena.

Franz Brentano

These phenomena, above all others, were zealously investigated by the great thinkers of antiquity. The fact that they can be ascribed just as well to the one science as to the other shows that empiricak is better to ascribe them to neither. Sometimes the processes are analogous to those in mechanics and sometimes to those in chemical reactions.

Moran, Dermot,Introduction to PhenomenologyLondon: In recent years an increasing number of philosophers from different fields have rediscovered and elaborated on different themes from Brentano’s philosophy.

In the third book of his treatise On the Soulwhere he deals with voluntary actions, he dismisses the thought of investigating the organs that serve as intermediaries between a desire and the part of the body toward whose movement the desire is directed.


This standpoint is clearly mirrored in his empirical approach to psychology.

The phenomena of light, sound, heat, spatial location and locomotion which he studies are not things which really and truly exist. Languages Eesti Edit links. Consequently, if someone knew from direct experience absolutely nothing about the state of psychology up to the present time, and were acquainted only with the history of the other theoretical sciences and with the recent birth of physiology and indeed even chemistry, he could affirm, without in any way being a sceptic about psychological matters, that psychology has achieved nothing as yet, or that it has achieved very little, and that at best it is only recently that it has shown a tendency toward a more substantial development.

Internationales Jahrbuch der Franz Brentano Forschung.

And the phenomena of consciousness are related to one another to an extraordinary degree. Let us clarify the basis of this objection.

Franz Brentano (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

The laws of gravitation, of sound, of light and electricity disappear along with the phenomena for which experience has established them. He did not hold, however, that this experience needs to be brentanoo from a third-person point of view, and thus opposes what has become a standard of empirical science nowadays.

Along with aesthetics and logic, ethics and politics also stem from the field of psychology. For they believe that the other sciences are only to be esteemed insofar as they lead the way to this one. Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions x x Furthermore he must investigate whether the soul is composed of parts or whether it is simple, and whether all the parts are bodily states or whether there are some which are not, in which case its immortality would be assured.

Brentano has often been described as an extraordinarily charismatic teacher.

Aristotle called politics the master art to which all others serve as subsidiaries.