Evanghelia lui Filip conține o cosmogonie influențată de dualismul gnostic, la prima vedere, părea a fi o evanghelie similară cu Evanghelia după Toma. Neîncrederea lui Toma este o atitudine sceptică ca apostolului Toma, care a Acest episod este relatat în Evanghelia după Ioan, deși nu apare în cele trei. Conform cercetărilor lui J. Gijsel și R. Beyers (), Evanghelia după bazează foarte mult pe Evanghelia după Iacov și pe Evanghelia copilăriei după Toma.
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Its place of origin may have been Syria, where Thomasine traditions were strong. I will contiue working on getting these languages better and more readable.
It was discovered near Nag Hammadi, Egypt, in Decemberin one of a group of books known as the Nag Hammadi library. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Gospel According to Thomas, commonly shortened to the Gospel of Thomas, is a well preserved early Christian, non-canonical sayings-gospel which many scholars believe provides insight into the Christian Oral Tradition. Unlike the canonical Gospels, it is not a narrative account of the life of Jesus; instead, it consists of logia sayings attributed to Jesus, sometimes stand-alone, sometimes embedded in short dialogues or parables.
Since its discovery, many scholars see it as evidence in support of the existence of the so-called Q source, which might have been very similar in its form as a collection of sayings of Jesus without any accounts of his deeds or his life and death, a so-called “sayings gospel”.
Neîncrederea lui Toma – Wikipedia
The Gospel of Tomq was found among a collection of fifty-two writings that included, in addition to an excerpt from Plato’s Republic, gospels claiming to have been written by Jesus’s disciple Philip. Almost half of these sayings resemble those found in the Canonical Gospels, while it is speculated that the other sayings were added from Gnostic tradition.
Scholars have speculated that the works were buried in response to a letter from Bishop Athanasius who for the first time declared a strict canon of Christian scripture.
It is possible that the document originated within a school of early Christians, possibly proto-Gnostics. The text contains a possible allusion to the death of Jesus in logion 65 Parable of the Wicked Tenants, paralleled in the Synoptic Gospelsbut doesn’t mention crucifixion, evwnghelia, or final judgement; nor does it mention a messianic understanding of Jesus.
This is similar to passages in the canonical gospels like John It is important to note, however, that while the Gospel of Thomas does not directly point to Jesus’ divinity, it also does not directly contradict it, and therefore neither supports nor contradicts gnostic beliefs.
The Coptic language text, the second of seven contained in what modern-day scholars have ttoma as Codex II, is composed of sayings attributed to Jesus.
Some critical scholars suspect that this reference to the Apostle Thomas is false, and that therefore the true author is unknown.
Some critics further claim that even the description of Thomas as a “gnostic” gospel is based upon little other than the fact that it was found along with gnostic texts at Nag Hammadi. The Gospel of Thomas is very different in tone and structure from other New Testament apocrypha and the four Canonical Gospels.
Neîncrederea lui Toma
The text itself, however, continuously reflects Gnostic teachings by continuously referring to Jesus’s sayings as “secret” and “mysterious”, which were common gnostic catchphrases. When asked his identity in the Gospel of Thomas, Jesus usually deflects, ambiguously asking the disciples why they do not see what is right in front of them.
Eusebius included it among a group tkma books that he believed to be not only spurious, but “the fictions of heretics”.