obtenidas por lisis de protoplastos (enzima A) o rotura mecánica de las La rotura celular, bien a partir de células enteras o esferoplastos produjo una subida. El procedimiento comúnmente empleado para la transformación de hongos requiere la producción de esferoplastos o protoplastos, los cuales, se mezclan con. La lisozima también altera la pared celular de bacterias patógenas transformándolas en esferoplastos o protoplastos, denominados formas L. La lisozima.

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Francisco Javier Arroyo Nombela. Te agradezco el esfuerzo final para que todo quedara terminado. Admiro tu persistencia y tus ganas de hacer ciencia, invencibles ante cualquier tempestad. Os deseo mucha suerte! I would like to thank Dr. Vladimir Farkas and Dr. Mariam Mazan to give me the opportunity to learn technical advices in vitro assays. A special thank for Dr. Farkas for the technical support and reactives provided without which some results could not have protoplastks during my protolpastos.

Thank for your generosity Dr. Charlar con vosotras siempre ha sido un placer. Vuestro trabajo es insustituible e imprescindible para el funcionamiento del departamento. Empezando por aquellos que se fueron: Cuanto tengo que agradecerte! Conocerte en el labo ha sido una de las mejores cosas que me han pasado en la vida. Patricia, iniciamos juntas nuestras tesis y hemos compartido grandes momentos que atesoro en mi memoria.

Mucho de este trabajo no hubiera sido posible sin ti.

Protoplasto Espanol

Sonia, me has ayudado mucho y he aprendido tantas cosas contigo que no sabes que afortunada me siento de haberte tenido tan cerquita porque gracias a ti esferoplaxtos encontraba una respuesta a Alguien sabe? Quique, pritoplastos actual compi de poyata! Euge y Elvis, Amigaaas!!! Os agradezco vuestra amistad incondicional y el lazo emocional tan bonito y fuerte que existe entre nosotras.

A Juanjo, quiero agradecerte toda tu ayuda en lograr esta meta profesional y el poder contar contigo en todo momento incondicional e desinteresadamente. Gracias por tu apoyo y cuidados.


Gracias por compartir conmigo las cosas importantes de mi vida. Por estar conmigo, apoyarme, cuidarme y quererme siempre. Me siento muy orgullosa de ti y de la bella persona que eres, Te quiero. Gracias por el apoyo incondicional que me disteis a esferoplaztos largo de la carrera, sin dudar ni un solo momento de mi inteligencia y capacidad. Gracias por apoyarme en todas las decisiones y darme la fortaleza para continuar.

Es por vosotros que soy lo que soy ahora. Assembly of the yeast cell wall. The fungal cell walls is a potential targets not only for natural defences but also for antifungal agents of medical importance, considering that the cell walls contains substances that are often not found in the host cell such as polysaccharides, it may be possible to find drugs that are able to block their biosynthesis without interfering with the host metabolism.

Although chitin is the minor component, is essential for the formation of a proper primary septum during cytokinesis and for the characteristic ring-like structures at the mother-bud neck that leave a scar on the mother cell wall after cell division. The cell wall components are covalently linked to form macromolecular complexes, which are assembled to form the intact cell wall.

The structure of the modules shows that there must be enzymes that link each pair of components and others that interlink the modules. Because of their role in imparting form and their relatively simple composition, fungal cell walls have been widely used as esferoplastso model for morphogenesis.

Although this is an apparently rigid structure is very dynamic and it needs to be remodelled during morphogenetic processes involving changes in cell morphology. During this situation growth occurs at defined positions on cell surfaces and involves asymmetric growth from one region of the esferoplasto to form particular cell structures or shapes.


In contrast to the knowledge about the synthesis of the components, little is known about the mechanisms by which cross-links between the different components are created. In our laboratory, we have described a novel family of cell wall related proteins: A defect in Crh1 and Crh2 causes esferolpastos to certain drugs as Congo Red and Calcofluor White, indicating some abnormality in the cell wall.

These proteins, which are differently expressed during Crh1 and Crh2, which are both GPIanchored cell wall proteins, localize to polarized growth sites. This localization is reminiscent of the distribution of chitin at the cell wall. Collectively, all data suggest a probable role for these proteins in the cross-linking protopoastos to other components.

AIM The overall objective of this thesis has been the characterization of the proteins Crh in relation to processes of the cell wall biogenesis and the morphogenesis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The obtained results were the following: In vivo, fluorescence was detected mainly in bud scars and at a lower There are three possible sources of chitin for cross-linking s to oligosaccharide: The binding of the fluorescent material to protpolastos was verified by chitinase digestion.

The intensity of the fluorescence clearly increases with the length of the oligosaccharide chain. We characterized the involvement of Crh proteins in the crosslinking of different acceptors to chitin in the cell wall with the three types of oligosaccharides.

The fact that there was not fluorescence incorporation in the double mutant indicates that there is no transglicosylation in the absence of both proteins. For in vitro assays, the proteins encoded by CRH1 and CRH2 were heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and a sensitive fluorescent in vitro soluble assay were devised for determination of their transglycosylation activities. We identified the minimal number of hexopyranose units required by Crh proteins in the acceptor oligosaccharide as two and the efficacy of the acceptor increases with increasing the length of the chain.

The optimum ph of both enzymes was 3. The product obtained by the reaction with CMchitin as the donor and laminarin-oligosaccharides as the acceptor is a high-mr polysaccharide containing incorporated fluorescent label.

The IR Infrared spectra of the principal fluorescent fragments after chitinase treatment exhibited similar features as those reported for the spectrum of CM-chitin. In agreement with their incorporation into the cell The result of Dixon graph indicates that the ChitoOS inhibited the transglycosylation between CM-chitin and Laminarin-oligosaccharides, as previously observed in vivo, and the inhibition was of competitive nature in relation to the acceptor.

Both proteins exhibited a weak chitinolytic activity measured in different assays. In order to distinguish between exochitinase and endochitinase activities, specific substrates were used. The results show that both enzymes act as endochitinases although the prevailing modes of action may be different. Morphogenesis is a fundamental process in all organisms that must be rigorously controlled to ensure the correct growth. A specialized portion of the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the septum, has been studied for many years as a model for morphogenesis.

During the cell cycle, the bud and the cell wall are continuously growing. However, protoplastow is an area between mother and daughter cell termed the neck which does efseroplastos change after budding initiation.

Previous data suggest that chitin ring and septins ring collaborate to preserve the widening of the neck. How does the chitin ring control morphogenesis at the neck? As consequence, mannoproteins also could not become part of the cell wall.


Thus, synthesis of the cell wall at the neck would eventually be stopped. The first material corresponds to the prohoplastos cross-linked structural product whereas the latter corresponds to glucan that is being remodelled.

Therefore, it appears that the linkage to chitin Then, we analyzed whether the mere presence of chitin would not block growth at the neck, unless the chitin is glucan-bound. A similar behaviour was observed by inhibition of the Crh proteins with ChitoOS. The morphological defects of the triple mutant were completely corrected by transformation with a plasmid carrying, CLA4 and partially by plasmids carrying CRH1 and CRH2.

By contrast, plasmids harbouring mutations of CRH1 and CRH2 in the putative glutamyl proton donor did not complement the defect. Despite the anomalous morphology, nuclear division seemed to take place efficiently in the triple mutant.

The same cannot be said for septin organization and localization. Often septa were abnormal, as visualized by electron microscopy. The bud elongation observed in the triple mutant probably results from the neck widening, which leads to disorganization of the septin ring and subsequent activation of the morphogenesis checkpoint.

We then deleted SWE1, protein kinase prktoplastos of apical growth, esferplastos the triple mutant. As expected, the length of the buds decreases dramatically, but no completely, however the necks remained wide.

Because of the crucial importance of events at the neck, we measured neck diameter in the different strains.

PROTOPLASTO – Definition and synonyms of protoplasto in the Portuguese dictionary

Thus, this is a clear case in which t specific chemical bond between potoplastos substances is essential for the control of morphogenesis. Thus, in the absence of these eferoplastos, chitin no cell wall glucan is covalently attached. The two proteins are functionally redundant, although Crh2 activity has a more important role in the formation of these links in normal yeast growth.

Under these conditions, induces the expression of CRH1 and also Crh1 and Crh2 both are redistributed in the side wall. We have developed an in vitro system transglycosylation soluble chitin-glucan, proteins using recombinant Crh1 and Crh2 expressed in Pichia pastoris.

Tranglicosilation reaction is enzymatic nature. This reaction, which requires at least 2 hexopyranose units at the non reducing end of acceptor, is competitively inhibited in the presence protoplstos N-acetyl-chitotriose. Furthermore, both as Crh1 and Crh2 chitinolytic have esferoplaxtos activity, which in the case of Crh1 is stimulated in the presence of chito-oligosaccharides and laminarin-oligosaccharides.

These in vivo experiments have confirmed the functional redundancy and Crh1 and Crh2. Crh2 greater relevance regarding the incorporation of various acceptors to the yeast cell wall. Other residues probably involved in binding of sugars, such as W, F and Y are also important for the transglycosylase activity of Crh1. Mutations in residues P38, S41, Y43, G44, G47, Y51 and F62 of this domain dramatically decrease of Crh2 transglycosylase activity, whereas the G49 residue is essential for this activity.

Furthermore residues C33, C39 and C40 of this domain are essential for the stability of the protein. Therefore, chitinglucan binding is essential to control morphogenesis in the neck. Fue el primer organismo eucariota en ser secuenciado y actualmente es el genoma esteroplastos mejor conocido.

Estructura de la pared celular.