Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD). ENMOD. Entry into force: 5 October. ENMOD Review Conference – Preparatory Committee () . #Gambia ratifies the Cluster Munitions Convention, bringing the number of states parties to The Convention defines environmental modification techniques as changing — through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes — the dynamics.

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The Disarmament Bulletin, N. Stating that under international law no circumstances whatsoever can justify any large-scale destruction of the environment. The Depositary or his representative shall serve as the Chairman of the Committee. Its enmov was to flood the Ho Chi Minh Trail to slow enemy movement through increased rainfall caused by seeding the cloud masses with large amounts of silver iodide spread by air.

Article V of the Convention provides for a consultation mechanism to solve any problem arising in relation to the objectives and in the application of the provisions of the Convention, including the establishment of a Consultative Committee of Experts to be chaired conventioh the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The 2nd Review Conference’s major accomplishment was in clearly establishing that “low tech” environmental modification such as fire and herbicides is prohibited.

Retrieved 24 August Five years after the entry into force of this Convention, a conference of the States Parties to the Convention shall be convened by the Depositary at Geneva, Switzerland.

The Security Council shall inform the States Parties of the results of the investigation. Article II As used in article 1, the term “environmental modification techniques” refers to any technique for changing – through the deliberate manipulation of natural processes – the dynamics, composition or structure of the Earth, including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, or of outer space.

All member countries of the European Union have ratified or signed, with the exception of four: On herbicides, the Conference agreed that their use would constitute an environmental modification technique as indicated in Article II. The Depositary shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of ratification or accession and the date of the entry into force of this Convention and of any amendments thereto, as well as of the receipt of other notices.

Article X This Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall send duly certified copies thereof to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States. Also pertaining article V was a move to convene a meeting to discuss conference-building measures and verification mechanisms.

COP 21, ENMOD and the 6th November : Peace and War at Stake

We must… start a process that could lead to legally-binding improvements to the Convention’s effectiveness. The work of the Consultative Committee of Experts shall be organized in such a way as to permit it to perform the functions set forth in paragraph 1 of this annex.


It consists of ten articles and convenion Annex concerning the Consultative Committee of Experts. This decision more firmly established a broader interpretation of the scope the convention and put to rest the minority view sometimes promoted by the US that ENMOD was manily a “future tech” or “high tech” convention. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party.

The Depositary shall distribute the summary to all States Parties. Stating that under existing international customary law it is already prohibited to cause significant damage to the environment of other States or areas beyond national jurisdiction. The Convention on Biological Diversity of would also ban some forms of weather modification or geoengineering.

Against this background, the Secretary-General of the United Nations has initiated a process of soliciting the views of the States parties to the Convention on the convening of the Third Review conference of the States parties to the Convention, as follows: Taking advantage of fonvention gap between the urgent need to fight against global warming and the weak measures provided by governments, climate engineering or geoengineering — defined as the deliberate large-scale technological action on the climate system to counter global warming or mitigate certain effectsclimate engineering is increasingly considered by some clnvention as a possible response to the challenge posed to cinvention planet.

The final text on Article II in the Final Declaration, containing the expression “any” hostile use as well as “any” environmental modification technique was meant to solve the controversy once for all. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes to cooperate in carrying out any investigation which the Security Council may initiate, in accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, on the conventio of the complaint received by the Council.

While many still oppose these connvention undertakings in the civil area, the military is much less scrupulous and there are many signs nemod a rampant militarization of climate engineering.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Clearly, the perceived lack of vonvention of ENMOD to the real security needs of most states is the reason for the low level of adherence. The Convention now has 77 States Parties. In other projects Wikisource. My purpose, on November 6th, was to remind that the environment, which is always a collateral victim of conflicts and military activities, can also become a weapon in itself, and it is urgent that we concern ourselves with the conventlon instruments designed to prevent that risk.

These Understandings are not incorporated into the Convention but are part of the negotiating record and were included in the report transmitted by the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament to the United Nations General Assembly in September Report eenmod the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament, Volume I, General Assembly Official records: The text of any proposed amendment shall be submitted to the Depositary, who shall promptly circulate it to all States Parties.


Regardless the merits of the arguments concerning the applicability of the ENMOD convention to the Gulf War, the discussion conventiion made one thing clear.

Environmental Modification Convention – Wikipedia

On these questions, a must-read is: States parties undertake not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or enmo effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to another State party article I. In their view, ENMOD needed more specific prohibitions to achieve greater applicability and universality: Indeed, it cobvention Iraq’s enmo of oil wells – a very low tech activity with devastating environmental consequences – that provided political momentum to convene the Conference.

Views Read Edit View history. This Convention shall be subject to ratification by signatory States. The Second Review Conference took place in September The course of action proposed by the Netherlands and Finland was to clarify Article II the definition of environmental modification techniques and the relevant Understandings.

Consultation and co-operation pursuant to this article may also be undertaken through conventuon international procedures within the framework of the United Nations and in accordance with its Charter. A number of other interesting proposals were made; but because transcripts or detailed summaries of the Review Conference’s deliberations have not been made public, it is difficult to trace the debate.

The problem of artificial modification of the environment for military or other hostile purposes was brought to the international agenda in the early s.

Echoing, to an extent, Finland and The Netherlands, Canada said: The Declaration fell into oblivion, thus breaking a process of successive reviews which could have led to nothing less than totally prohibiting bombings….

Only one State, Uruguay, expressed support for convening a new review conference, while two, USA and UK, stated cpnvention they see no need for such a conference The European duo proposal that a specific reference to the use of herbicides which from had been acknowledged by the US as a potential ENMOD violation would be a positive step. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes to provide or support assistance, in accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations, to any State Party which so requests, if the Security Council decides that such Party has been harmed or is likely to be harmed as a result of violation of the Convention.

This Convention shall be registered by the Depositary in accordance with Article of the Charter of the United Nations.

Pursuant to its article VII, the Convention is of unlimited duration.