Zeyen based Ciudad Jardín on Ebenezer Howard’s garden city ideals and designs, which had gained a strong influence in Germany at that. Ciudad Jardin. El movimiento urbanístico de las ciudades jardín fue fundado por Sir Ebenezer Howard (). Sus conceptos sociológicos y urbanísticos. Letchworth and Welwyn in Britain were the first g. c.s); s ciudad [f] jardín (Tipo de ciudad nueva ideada por EBENEZER HOWARD en , definida por él como.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. However, this inherent flexibility has also left the Garden City model vulnerable to appropriation and misinterpretation. This vulnerability has been extensively tested through a number of adaptations and international translations that took place at the beginning of the twentieth century. To develop this thesis, the essential elements and the theory behind the original British model are used as a basis for a comparative case study that focuses on the translation of Howard’s urban scheme to the United States and Argentina: An analysis of their planning components allows for a critical view on the adaptation and interpretation carried out in each of these endeavors.

This approach is tested through an understanding of the historical, political, social, and cultural precedents that have shaped the materialization of the chosen North and South American examples. In conclusion, the Garden City model has proven to be flexible enough to adapt to a wide range of local determinants, although it is in retaining the essential elements in the original scheme as a whole that the true success of the model resides.

In this sense, I would like to acknowledge and thank the following for playing an invaluable role towards the completion of this work. John Onyango, I am extremely grateful for having crossed paths with such a smart, caring, kind, and extremely qualified professional and advisor. I consider myself to be very lucky for having had you as my guide throughout my Master course.

Katherine Wheeler, my deepest gratitude for the uncountable hours you devoted to guide me through the process of bringing this project to life. There are many things I could say, but all lead to the fact that I could not have achieved this without your enthusiastic and valuable guidance. Many, many thanks for all your kind patience and support every step of the way.

I thank you for pushing me to face this challenge, and for being present and supportive on every occasion that I reached out for advice. To my teachers at the School of Architecture at UM, especially those with whom I’ve had the pleasure to collaborate in different capacities during the past semesters: Roberto Behar, and Prof.

Victor Deupi; I could never thank you enough for valuing my input and trusting me to make my small contribution to your academic endeavors. To the rest of my teachers, Prof. Li Yi, many thanks for sharing both your professional and academic knowledge with me and adding to an overall enriching experience. Lastly, I would like to thank Elisiene Jean, for welcoming me every morning at the Architecture Library with a beautiful smile, for being passionate about my research, and proving to be always ready to lend a clever hand.

I also want to thank Brian Breed at the Writing Center for all his kind patience and valuable input, in helping me through the final sprint.

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Ebenezer Howard and the essentials of the Garden City Letchworth and the Garden City working model The Garden City in the American Continents How it all started. Home ownership for every family The Issue of Regionalism. Greenbelt and El Palomar To-Day: An overview on the evolution of a planned community As reproduced in Steven S. Plan Showing Original Estates.

Purdom, The Garden City: Purdom, The Building of Satellite Towns: Purdom, The Building of Satellite Towns. As reproduced in Clarence S. Press,p. Hertfordshire Archives and Local Studies online at www. In “La Ciudad como Escenario” online blog at: Collage developed with photographs taken by author in a research trip to Greenbelt in March In “Houses that grow.

In literature, for example, the translator needs to be especially careful in transferring content while keeping the literary quality of the text intact. In the case of Ebenezer Howard’s Garden City, it is the consideration of every essential element proposed within ebenezre theory’s framework that ensures the model’s urban quality and success.


In his Garden City, conceived as a whole, every aspect plays a relevant role in its configuration. The present analysis, deals with the translation of the Garden City urban model beyond its original territory. It is then by establishing and understanding the meaning behind the essential elements embedded in the British theory that we are able to weigh in on the degree of success reached by its translations.

All planning and building considerations aside, the Garden City model proposed by Ebenezer Howard1 is deeply rooted in social determinants that can only be analyzed by taking into account the socio-cultural and jsrdin framework in which these developments are brought to life.

The fundamentals and the theory behind the original British urban planning model establish a foundation for ciusad comparative case study of the 1 Ebenezer Howard was born in London, in After completing his formal education, Howard worked as a clerk for the city of London, while teaching himself the trade of shorthand writing. Inhe traveled to the United States. He settled in Nebraska from where, after a failed attempt at estate farming, he left for Chicago where he ebenezerr employed as a stenographer ebeneze the court.

Ebenezer Howard

Howard returned to Great Britain inwhere he continued to work as a parliamentary shorthand reporter. His first work hiward garden cities Tomorrow: As many relevant historical figures, Ebenezer Howard achieved recognition later in life.

He was knighted inand died at his house in Welwyn Garden City in May 1st, As the epitaph ciduad on his headstone located in Howardsgate, Welwyn, reads: A critical view on the interpretations and ciduad adaptations performed by these examples develops through the analysis of the components of each of these urban models.

When considering the issue of the strong government-policy applied at Greenbelt, versus the real-estate operation behind El Palomar, similarities and differences arise.

The analysis of said conditions serves as a basis for an understanding of the working model, while revealing the flexibility implicit in the core values that allowed for the spread of the scheme beyond England’s borders.

Based on a historical analysis of the precedents–the local, the social, and cultural determinants that set the grounds for each case study scenario–we are able to get an understanding of the driving forces that prompted and shaped these particular urban planning examples. The present study also deals with the role played by stewardship and the impact it had on the condition in which each of these urban models has reached the present.

This situation is especially relevant in the case of Greenbelt, given its historic designation and cooperative ownership model, allowing for a look into how these conditions affect the evolution of the built environment. The Garden City model has proven to be a relevant scheme, capable of transcending the determinants posed by geography, culture, and even time. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of all of its physical components, along with a critical view on its origins and underlying philosophy, is paramount to the history and analysis of modern urban planning.

But far more interesting than Howard’s proposal for “a peaceful path to real reform,”2 as F.

Ciudad Jardin Ebenezer Howard by cesar gonzalez on Prezi

Osborn expressed on the preface of the edition, is “the history of the book and its effects full of paradoxes. It is important to understand the reasons behind the selection of this particular urban utopia as a response to the issues faced by the cities that are part of the present comparative case study. It is also important to differentiate the critics’ views on the Garden City model from the promotional literature in the early 20th century.

The view of the Garden City as a solution to the social issues that were a part of the status quo of urbanism in the United Kingdom, versus the issues posed by the rise of unemployment and the dire need for social housing policies, as in the case of the greenbelt towns 2 Ebenezer Howard, Tomorrow: Relevant to understanding the core values embedded in Howard’s proposal, the analysis on the performance of the first Garden City becomes an invaluable source.

Purdom, for example, in his Garden City: A Study in the Development of a Modern Town published in only four years after Letchworth was completed–provides a detailed overview of the materialization of the model: This publication corresponds with the peak of the New Towns movement in the UK, considered “the natural successors of the two Garden Cities.


Stein’s book–undoubtedly one of the prominent proponents of the British urban model in America–is published in the United States. In the words of Stein: Melvyn Miller Routledge, NY,p. The ideal of a “social city as a system” becomes a relevant aspect to contemplate when establishing an analysis of any given translation or adaptation of the Garden City.

Past, Present, and Future howarrd that “what garden cities’ advocates managed to do so brilliantly was to tie the fate of the poor to the middle class.

The discussion involves not only how faithful this selection was to Howard’s ideal, but also the way in which these social values were embodied in the design of these cities, thus resulting in their present status quo.

The notorious Joseph Arnold, in his comprehensive analysis of The New Deal in the Suburbs, gives an accurate description of the selection carried out through a thorough system of applications for tenant selection. Arnold, The New Deal in jadrin Suburbs: Wagner, “Suburban Landscapes for Nuclear Families: Arnold follows the idea of the need to separate the physical planning aspect from the socio-economic.

In assessing the greenbelt program, his analysis becomes a valuable addition to the aforementioned Clarence Stein’s input on Greenbelt, Maryland, developed in the chapter devoted to this location in Towards New Towns for America The numerous publications that are mentioned throughout the references and in the bibliography, are supplemented by the archival sources available at the Tugwell Room located at the Greenbelt Public Library.

Area maps and local publications, along with an ample stock of newspaper clippings covering the historic arc of evenezer town, become invaluable to analyze the development of this politically oriented urban experiment. In the ciudae of El Palomar, we evenezer not only dealing with a garden city at the scale of a neighborhood, but also one that was howqrd and developed outside of government housing policy.

Nevertheless, there are many publications that are able to help understand the historic and political driving forces behind the real-estate operation of El Palomar.

The solution to the problem is in the financing system.

Ebenezer Howard Research Papers –

Charles Sargent, in his book The Spatial evolution of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentinadevelops an analysis on the population shifts that shaped the modern city. He covers the aspects that led to the modern metropolis, such as immigration, and the evolution of transportation systems, which paved the way for the development of economic initiatives that would drive the city inhabitants towards the conurbation.

Silva, “El Cooperativismo y la Vivienda. Robert Stern’s Paradise Planned provides an impressive account of garden cities spread throughout thirty countries, and it has soon become a valuable reference for any research on the topic, as well as an impressive catalogue that manages to bring the Garden City ideal to the present.

In spite of its undeniable scholarly and professional value, it still leaves out almost all of the developments in Latin America with only a brief overview of Mexico and Brazil.

This operation would lead to an urban equilibrium to solve most of the ecological and sustainability issues that modern cities face today. In conclusion, in terms of the analysis on the evolution of these international adaptations, the pre-eminent elements in Ebenezer Howard’s scheme–the theory, its materialization through Letchworth, and the “Social City” idea–become relevant to develop an analysis on the translation of the model and the adaptations that resulted from the international spread of an urban ideal.

These will open two lines of investigation to be developed through the case studies: The draft of the book–unpublished to this date–is available for free download at: It permitted parts of the idea to take root in widely different economic, institutional, cultural, and aesthetic values.