PDF | La profilaxis antibiótica en Odontología tiene como objetivo prevenir la aparición de infección a Palabras clave: Profilaxis; Antibióticos; Odontología. Alérgicos a betalactámicos Clindamicina mg VO Clindamicina 20 mg/kg VO. La combinación ampicilina/sulbactam está conformada por el antibiótico ampicilina, derivado se indica en medicina para el tratamiento de infecciones causadas por bacterias resistentes a los antibióticos betalactámicos. El sulbactam, por. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]; Spanish: Los antibióticos betalactámicos son los que 3Estudiante del 10o semestre de la Licenciatura en Cirujano Dentista.
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Log In Sign Up. Universidad de Murcia 4 Profesor Titular del Dpto. Universidad de Barcelona 6 Profesor Titular del Dpto. Universidad de Sevilla 8 Profesora Asociada.
Universidad de Granada 10 Profesor Asociado. Universidad de Salamanca 11 Profesor del Dpto. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud. Por ello, este ha puesto de manifiesto en muchos trabajos.
Fusobacterium nucleatum Peptostreptococcus micros 5. Requiere Disnea un tratamiento local que elimine la placa y desinfecte los surcos Disfagia gingivales. Como tratamiento adyuvante puede utilizarse enjuagues con clorhexidina durante 8. La primera tiene la una mejor cobertura Tetraciclinas la cavidad bucal 7, However, few studies bios Grampositivos y la azitromicina frente a los anaerobios have so far aimed to determine its incidence.
Added to this, its Gramnegativos. En la cavidad bucal hay una gran cantidad de microorganismos terminology and therapeutic recommendations is noticeable. En las infecciones bucofaciales intervienen factores micro- establish useful recommendations for all of those involved in bianos y del hospedador, lo que hace que la respuesta in vitro the clinical management of this pathology.
Special attention has pueda ser diferente a la que acontece in vivo. Another important factor causing the resistance to 4. Therefore, this pathology cons- resistentes a ciertos tratamientos. Other agents such as metronidazole and clindamycin, tiempo, etc.
Otras alterna- tivas como claritromicina y azitromicina completan el arsenal Key words: Of these types of infections, odontogenic infections infections that involve tooth and periodontal tissues are the most common. It is the most frequent reason for seeking odontological consultation and intervention and it affects the entire population from child- hood especially cavities throughout a person s entire lifespan periodontitis, implant complications, etc.
Because of this association collaboration with specialists in the microbiology of these kinds between infection and other systemic diseases, it is essential of infections, is none other than to establish recommendations that odontogenic infections be avoided as much as possible or that will be of use for all those involved in the daily clinical failing that, that they be identified and treated promptly and management of patients suffering from these diseases.
On occasion, an odontogenic infection can spread and provoke polymicrobial infections in other locations, such as 2. Streptococcus mutans The odontogenic infections that present most frequently would Cavities Actinomyces spp be those that result from dental cavities, dentoalveolar infections Lactobacillus spp infections of the pulpa and periapical abscessesgingivitis including necrotising ulcerative gingivitisperiodontitis in- Campylobacter rectus Actinomyces spp cluding pericoronitis and the periimplantitisinfections of the Gingivitis sub-aponeurotic spaces, osteitis, and osteomyelitis.
Prevotella intermedia Streptococcus anginosus Porphyromonas gingivalis Bacteroides forsythus 3. Fusobacterium nucleatum The oral cavity is a complex ecosystem made up of more than Peptostreptococcus micros bacterial species In the aetiology of periodontal disease, a whole series of species such as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Por- Peptostreptococcus micros phyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella Pericoronitis Porphyromonas gingivalis forsythensis can be especially highlighted due to their frequency Fusobacterium spp and the importance of the complications that may arise from Peptostreptococcus micros them.
Facultative gram-negative bacilli are uncommon in heal- Fusobacterium nucleatum thy adults and are seen almost exclusively in elderly, hospitalised Periimplantitis Prevotella intermedia patients with serious medical diseases Pseudomonas aeruginosa Staphylococcus spp The ploymicrobial nature of odontogenic infection has been Peptostreptococcus micros demonstrated in many papers. For example, in a study conducted Porphyromonas endodontalis by Brook et al.
Of the facultative derived from disemination via the circulatory system 14, Antimicrobial treatment is not the only treatment option for Table 1 shows the most commonly found bacteria in each oral odontogenic infection, since antibiotic administration alone is condition.
Depending on the infection and the patient s characteristics, the optimum treatment 4. The diagnosis of odontogenic infection is based on anamnesis, observation and examination that allows symptoms and signs to be recorded.
Information regarding the patient s history of the 6.
Radiological diagnosis betalachamicos fundamental in In some cases, surgical treatment is also necessary and in determining the location, extension and possible complications others, antibiotucos best course of treatment is debridement, irrigation of oeontologia lesions. The role of the laboratory in diagnosing odontogenic infections befalactamicos -Endodontic Infections Arising from the Pulpa routine practice in dentists offices is controversial.
Antibiotics are also indicated repeated or unusual infections or infections that are suspicious in cases in which the patient is immunodepressed and requires of any underlying disease that can have repercussions in the oral prophylaxis. Better still, the internist s report should be requested before -Chronic Gingivitis and Necrotising Ulcerative Gingivitis undertaking any kind of action.
The patient can be spared serious NUG medical complications and the professional can avoid legal com- Generally speaking, the treatment of mild gingivitis does not plications. Bear in mind conditions such as endocarditis, diabetes, include systemic antibiotic administration.
It requires local treat- AIDS, hepatitis, etc. Useful measures include rinsing with chlorhexidine, ples will be taken prior to commencing with antibiotic treatment brushing with a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen and will be sent to the laboratory following proper standards. The rapid techniques currently on the market can be a great One exception is NUG, in which systemic beyalactamicos use is re- diagnostic aid. The microbiological diagnosis seeks to rule out commended.
The same is true of streptococcal gingivitis, cau- a specific aetiology, identify the aetiology of the condition and sed by group A beta haemolytic streptococcus Streptococcus obtain overall information that is currently lacking, as well as to pyogenes that presents as a complication of acute streptococcal determine sensitivity to antimicrobial agents. In the case of NUG, in addition to effect a change in the event that the empirical treatment fails to antibiotic treatment, debridement with ample irrigation is re- and to establish general empirical therapies.
Topical application of mouthwash containing chlorhexidine or saline solution is effective in controlling the pain and ulceration that accompanies this condition.
Aetiological -Periodontal Abscess odontological treatment, which often includes surgical inter- Treatment consists of debriding and draining the purulent pocket. Finally, remove subgingival plaque deposits constitute the first line of antimicrobial treatment should only be applied on rare occasions treatment. Subgingival irrigation should also be performed using and on the basis of rational, efficiency criteria.
In general, an- ultrasound tartar removal equipment to disinfect the gingival timicrobial treatment must be initiated whenever the condition sulcus. Other useful measures consist of rinsing the mouth with presents clear clinical manifestations of infection.
Antibioticos en Odontologia. by Itzel Peña on Prezi
Antimicro- chlorhexidine or brushing with a mixture of sodium bicarbonate bial treatment of odontogenic infections aims to prevent local and hydrogen peroxide. Systemic antibiotics are indicated espe- spread and spread to neighbouring areas, to decrease the bacterial cially for the treatment of aggressive periodontitis Local treatment consisting betslactamicos debri- that facilitates treatment compliance.
It is often necessary to admi- by mechanical debridement. Rinsing the mouth with chlorhexi- nister combinations of antibiotics that can achieve a spectrum of dine for 30 seconds after brushing teeth may also be useful as activity and are more appropriate to the type of infection. Odontogenic infec- The increased prevalence of bacterial resistance means that tions are caused by a highly predictable group of bacteria, so antibiotics that have been useful in the past are currently no the first choice of antibiotic is made empirically.
However, if longer as effective as they once were, as is the case with certain evolution is unfavourable, the antibiotic chosen can be subs- dose levels. In this regard, in the last years the number tituted by another one or more than one after identifying the of resistant microorganisms in the oral cavity has doubled Likewise, over the course of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Whereas an increase in the macrolide doses does not lead to increased coverage against the resistant strains, in the case of beta-lactam, higher doses can lead to better coverage Table 3 shows the activity of several antimicrobial agents against the most important microorganisms that cause perio- Rapidly progressive cellulitis dontal disease.
Overall, treatment duration will vary between 5 and 10 Severe involvement of general health status days; in other words, treatment should continue for 3 or 4 days Immunocompromised patients diabetes, alcoholism, malnutri- after clinical manifestations have disappeared Criteria for Referring Patents to Hospital.
Tables 4 and 5 present antimicro- bial agents and the dosing schedules recommended for each 7. Penicillins The ideal antibiotic for treating an infection must have a series Penicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin are bactericides that are of characteristics such as: Activity of Different Antimicrobial Agents against Periodontopathogens Antibiotics and Antiseptics of Use in Odontogenic Infections This table is indicative of the antibiotics used, which is not to say that they are hended in all cases.
Amoxicillin and ampicillin increase penicillin s bacteria, enzymes that are capable of hydrolysing penicillins and, spectrum to cover enteric gram-negative bacilli.
Interacciones farmacológicas relacionadas con la administración de antibióticos betalactámicos.
Metronidazole, clarithromycin and doxicycline are contraindicated in pregnant women. Other contraindications must also be taken into consideration. Given the increased prevalence of beta-lactamase producing antimicrobial use The increased resistance of some species of oral strep- produce alterations such as dental hypoplasia, bone deformities tococci indicates that high doses of amoxicillin be used to treat and abnormal betalctamicos colour Furthermore, betalactamico cocci and facultative, aerobic bacteria of the oral cavity 7, Lincosamides Clindamycin continues to be the treatment of choice in patients Cephalosporins who are allergic to beta-lactams in most odontogenic infections.
Cephalosporins are classified in generations, based on their an- It presents a good level of activity against anaerobic bacteria, tibacterial spectra, regardless of when they were synthesised.
They present the high doses of this antibiotic, nor is it active against some gram- disadvantage of having very poor activity against anaerobic bac- negative bacilli, such as A. Macrolides Tetracyclines Macrolides are bacteriostatic antibiotics with a spectrum of ac- Tetracyclines have classically been the standard antibiotic of use tivity that covers gram-positive bacteria, some gram-negative in treating odontogenic infection, although at present, they exert bacilli, bacteria growing intercellularly and several anaerobic limited activity as a result antibiotifos increased resistance, particularly bacteria, including Porphyromonas and Prevotellagenera.
Like other streptococci species S. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of periapical abscess. Oral Microbiol Immunol ;6: Streptococcus pyogenes 60the prevalence of resistance to Antiseptics and antibiotics as chemotherapeutic agents for peri- oral streptococci has increased significantly, with rates of more odontitis management.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; Slots J, Jorgensen MG.
Efficient antimicrobial treatment in periodontal Amongst representatives of this drug family, clarithromycin maintenance care. J Am Dent Assoc ; Periodontal disease as a specific, albeit chronic, show the greatest in vitro activity against anaerobic gram-posi- infection: Clin Microbiol Rev ; Jorgensen MG, Slots J. Practical antimicrobial periodontal therapy. Contin Educ Dent ; Concepts, paradigms, and odontologua.