Microcontroller Instruction Set. For interrupt response time information, refer to the hardware description chapter. Note: 1. Operations on SFR byte address Instruction Set. ♢ Introduction. ♢ CIP architecture and memory organization review. ♢ Addressing modes. ➢ Register addressing. ➢ Direct addressing. Instruction hex code. MOVE with immediate data. Hex. Bytes Instruction. 2. MOV A, #immediate. 3. MOV direct, #immediate. 2. MOV @R0, #.

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8051 Microcontroller Instruction Set

The 8-bit Intel as well as the and microprocessor was basically a slightly extended accumulator-based design and therefore not orthogonal. The Essentials of Computer Organization and Architecture.

Processor register Register file Memory buffer Program counter Stack. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. In these architectures, only a very few memory reference instructions can access main memory and only for the purpose of loading data into registers or befehlszatz register data back into main memory; only a few addressing modes may be available, and these modes may vary depending on whether the instruction refers to data or involves a transfer of control jump.

By using this site, you agree to the Befehlssatx of Use and Privacy Policy. It maintained some degree of non-orthogonality for the sake of high code density even though this was derided as being ” baroque ” by some befelssatz scientists [ who? Articles that may contain original research from November All articles that may contain original research Articles needing additional references from April All articles needing additional references Articles with multiple maintenance issues Articles needing additional references from April All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April befehlssaatz Learn befehlsdatz and when to remove these template messages.

Perhaps some of the bits that were used to express the fully orthogonal instruction set could instead be used to express more virtual address bits or select from among more registers. Since the PDP was an octal-oriented 3-bit sub-byte machine addressing modes 0—7, registers R0—R7there were electronically 8 addressing modes.

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Instruction Set Manual: Instruction Set Manual

An orthogonal instruction set does not impose a limitation that requires a certain instruction to use a specific register. Unlike PDP, the MC used separate registers to store data and 80511 addresses of data in memory. In computer engineeringan orthogonal instruction set is an instruction set architecture where all instruction types can use all addressing modes.

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In many CISC computers, an instruction could access either registers or memory, usually in several different ways.

Branch prediction Memory dependence prediction. This article possibly contains original research. This article has multiple issues. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. It is ” orthogonal ” in the sense that the instruction type and the addressing mode vary independently. This was largely due to a desire to keep all opcodes one byte long.

An assembly-language programmer or compiler writer had to be mindful of which operations were befehlsssatz on each register: Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Each component being one bytethe opcode a value in the range befehlssarz, and each operand consisting of two nibblesthe upper 4 bits specifying an addressing mode, and the lower 4 bits usually specifying a register number R0—R Through the use of the Stack Pointer R6 and Program Counter R7 as referenceable registers, there were 10 conceptual addressing modes available.

Retrieved from ” https: Data dependency Structural Control False sharing. Even the PC and the stack pointer could be affected by the ordinary instructions using all of the ordinary data modes.

November Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section does not cite any sources. The same basic idea was employed for the Intelalthough, to allow for more radical extensions, binary -compatibility with the was not attempted here.

Instruction processing Instruction set architectures. Views Read Edit View history.

Orthogonal instruction set

Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. This page was last edited on 10 Augustat Designers of RISC architectures strove to achieve a balance that they thought better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This compromise gave almost the same convenience as a truly orthogonal machine, and yet also gave the CPU designers freedom to use the bits in the instructions more efficiently than a purely orthogonal approach might have. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. However, the encoding-strategy used still shows many traces from the and and Z80 ; for instance, single-byte encodings remain for certain frequent operations such as push and pop of registers and constants, and the primary accumulator, eaxemploy shorter encodings than the other registers on certain types of operations; observations like this are sometimes exploited for code optimization in both compilers and hand written code.

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Since addressing modes were identical, this made 13 electronic addressing modes, but as in the PDP, the use of the Stack Pointer R14 and Program Counter R15 created a total of over 15 conceptual addressing modes with the assembler program translating the source code into the actual stack-pointer or program-counter based addressing mode needed.

At the bit level, the person writing the assembler or debugging machine code would clearly see that symbolic instructions could become any of several different op-codes.

This resulted in 16 logical addressing modes 0—15however, addressing modes 0—3 were “short immediate” for immediate data of 6 bits or less the 2 low-order bits of the addressing mode being the 2 high-order bits of the immediate data, when prepended to the remaining 4 bits in that data-addressing byte.

Conversely, data must be in registers before it can be operated upon by the other instructions in the computer’s instruction set. This trade off is made explicitly to enable the use of much larger register sets, extended virtual addresses, and longer immediate data data stored directly within the computer instruction. Every integer instruction could operate on either 1-byte or 2-byte integers and could access data stored in registers, stored as part of the instruction, stored in memory, or stored in memory and pointed to by addresses in registers.

A fully orthogonal architecture may not be the most “bit efficient” architecture. With the exception of its floating point instructions, the PDP was very strongly orthogonal.

In the late s research at Befehlesatz and similar projects elsewhere demonstrated that the majority of these “orthogonal” addressing modes were ignored by most programs. This article needs additional citations for verification. Tomasulo algorithm Reservation station Re-order buffer Register bfeehlssatz. Single-core Multi-core Manycore Heterogeneous architecture. Motorola’s designers attempted to make the assembly language orthogonal while the underlying machine language was somewhat less so.

The binary-compatible Z80 later added prefix-codes to escape from this 1-byte limit and allow for a more powerful instruction set. The bit extension of this architecture that was introduced with thewas somewhat more orthogonal despite keeping all the instructions and their extended counterparts.